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CFS in the media: a content analysis of Norwegian newspaper articles

Friday 2 March 2012


From the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Short Report:


NewspapersChronic fatigue syndrome in the media: a content analysis of newspaper articles

Ann Kristen Knudsen1Anne Nagelgaard Omenås1Samuel B Harvey2, Camilla MS Løvvik1Linn V Lervik1 and Arnstein Mykletun1,3

Author Affiliations
1Department of Health Promotion and Development, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
2King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, Weston Education Centre, London, UK
3Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Mental Health, Oslo, Norway

Correspondence to: Arnstein Mykletun. Email:


Objectives Although cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise treatment are recognized evidence-based treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), their use is still considered controversial by some patient groups. This debate has been reflected in the media, where many patients gather health information. The aim of this study was to examine how treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome/ME is described in the newspaper media.

Design Content analysis of newspaper articles.

Setting The digitalized media archive Atekst was used to identify Norwegian newspaper articles where chronic fatigue syndrome/ME was mentioned.

Participants Norwegian newspaper articles published over a 20-month period, from 1 January 2008 to 31 August 2009.

Main outcome measures Statements regarding efficiency of various types of treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome/ME and the related source of the treatment advice. Statements were categorized as being either positive or negative towards evidence-based or alternative treatment.

Results One hundred and twenty-two statements regarding treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome/ME were identified among 123 newspaper articles. The most frequent statements were positive statements towards alternative treatment Lightning Process (26.2%), negative statements towards evidence-based treatments (22.1%), and positive statements towards other alternative treatment interventions (22.1%). Only 14.8% of the statements were positive towards evidence-based treatment. Case-subjects were the most frequently cited sources, accounting for 35.2% of the statements, followed by physicians and the Norwegian ME association.

Conclusions Statements regarding treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome/ME in newspapers are mainly pro-alternative treatment and against evidence-based treatment. The media has great potential to influence individual choices. The unbalanced reporting of treatment options for chronic fatigue syndrome/ME in the media is potentially harmful.


The full document can be found here.



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